Chiefly Australian and North American: 20th-century coinage, from Charles + the feminine name suffix -ene. It may have been influenced by the older but much rarer French name Charline, a feminine diminutive of Charles.
English: nickname from the animal, Middle English, Old English fox. It may have denoted a cunning individual or been given to someone with red hair or for some other anecdotal reason. This relatively common and readily understood surname seems to have absorbed some early examples of less transparent surnames derived from the Germanic personal names mentioned at Faulks and Foulks.