Chiefly Australian and North American: 20th-century coinage, from Charles + the feminine name suffix -ene. It may have been influenced by the older but much rarer French name Charline, a feminine diminutive of Charles.
Irish: Anglicized form of Gaelic Mac Mathghamhna, a patronymic from the byname Mathghamhain meaning ‘good calf’. This was the name of two (unrelated) chieftain families in counties Clare and Monaghan. In northern Ireland it is sometimes Anglicized as Matthews, since Matha was the Irish form of the Biblical name.