From the Latin female name, a feminine form of Claudius. The name is mentioned in one of St Paul's letters to Timothy (2, 4:21 ‘Eubulus greeteth thee, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren’), as a result of which it was taken up in the 16th century and has since maintained a steady popularity.
Scottish and northern English: from Middle English belle ‘bell’, in various applications; most probably a metonymic occupational name for a bell ringer or bell maker, or a topographic name for someone living ‘at the bell’ (as attested by 14th-century forms such as John atte Belle). This indicates either residence by an actual bell (e.g. a town's bell in a bell tower, centrally placed to summon meetings, sound the alarm, etc.) or ‘at the sign of the bell’, i.e. a house or inn sign (although surnames derived from house and inn signs are rare in Scots and English).