Muslim: from the Persian royal title Shāh ‘king’, ‘emperor’. This was the title adopted by the kings of the Pahlavi dynasty (1925–79). Shāh is found in combination with other words, e.g. Shāh Jahan (name of a Mughal emperor, ruled 1628–57) and Shāh ῾ālam ‘king of the world’ (name of a Mughal emperor, ruled 1707–12). This name is widespread in Iran and the subcontinent.