As a girl's name this is a pet form of Jacqueline, as in the case of Jackie Kennedy Onassis (1929–94). It was originally a boy's name, a pet form of Jack. The racing driver Jackie Stewart (b. 1939) was originally named John Young Stewart.
English: habitational name from Chester, the county seat of Cheshire, or from any of various smaller places named with this word (as for example Little Chester in Derbyshire or Chester le Street in County Durham), which is from Old English ceaster ‘Roman fort or walled city’ (Latin castra ‘legionary camp’).