From a Norman French name, Raulf, a contracted form of the Germanic personal name Radulf, derived from rād ‘counsel’ + wulf ‘wolf’. The spelling with -ph is due to classical influence in the 18th century.
Italian: 1. possibly from patella ‘limpet’, and hence a metonymic occupational name for someone who collected shell fish, or a nickname for a tenacious or withdrawn person. 2. nickname or metonymic occupational name from a variant of patella ‘porringer’, ‘frying pan’. In this sense, it is also found as a Greek name.