Chinese 段: from the name of the youngest son of Duke Wu Gong of the state of Zheng during the Spring and Autumn period (722–481BC). He was brought up by a doting mother and became an arrogant and domineering man. Upon being granted a fief, he raised an army with the goal of overthrowing his elder brother, Duke Zhuang Gong. Hearing of this, the latter remarked, ‘excessive unrighteous behavior must die of itself’, and as he expected, his younger brother failed. Nevertheless some of his descendants adopted Duan as their surname. Another source of the name is from Duan-gan Mu of the state of Wei during the Warring States period (403–221BC). His descendants simplified Duan-gan to Duan and adopted that as their surname.